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Vinland Sagas - The Viking Colonization of North America
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Vinland Sagas - The Viking Colonization of North America

The Vinland Sagas are four medieval Viking manuscripts that report (among other things) the stories of the Norse colonization of Iceland, Greenland and North America. These stories speak of Thorvald Arvaldson, credited with the Norse discovery of Iceland; Thorvald's son Eirik the Red for Greenland, and Eirik's son Leif (the Lucky) Eiriksson for Baffin Island and North America.

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What Is Transcendentalism?

The term transcendentalism has sometimes been difficult for people to understand. Maybe you first learned about Transcendentalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau in high school English class, but couldn't figure out what the central idea was that held all those authors and poets and philosophers together.
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Budget Cuts and Teacher Planning Time

Teacher planning and preparation is a key part of effective teaching. This is an area that often faces cuts when dealing with issues like increasing the number of periods in a day, reducing the number of days each week that students come to school, or putting schools on double schedules. It almost appears that there is a lack of concern over the importance of planning time.
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Turkey Cooking: Physics and Thermodynamics

Turkeys are native to North America, called "Indian fowls" in some writings of the 1500s. Around 1519, ships began transporting turkeys back to Spain, thus beginning its migration to Europe. American Benjamin Franklin advocated the turkey as the national bird. The turkey became prominent in Europe in the 1800s during the holiday season, replacing the goose as the most popular Christmas bird in the latter part of the century.
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Wilhelm Reich and the Orgone Accumulator

"Warning: misuse of the Orgone Accumulator may lead to symptoms of orgone overdose. Leave the vicinity of the accumulator and call the 'Doctor' immediately!" That would be the controversial Doctor Wilhelm Reich, father of orgone energy (also known as chi or ‚Äčlife energy) and the science of ‚Äčorgonomy.
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The Meaning and Origin of the Surname Williams

Williams is a common patronymic (descended from the father's lineage) surname with several possible origins, however, in Wales, adding an "s" to the end of a surname denotes "son of," pointing to Wales as the country of origin. Williams is the third most popular surname in the United States Williams and is also highly popular in England, Scotland, Australia, and Germany.
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Site Formation Processes in Archaeology

Site Formation Processes refers to the events that created and affected an archaeological site before, during, and after its occupation by humans. To gain the best possible understanding of an archaeological site, researchers collect evidence of the natural and cultural events that happened there. A good metaphor for an archaeological site is a palimpsest, a medieval manuscript that has been written on, erased and written over, again and again, and again.
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How To Make Magnetic Slime

Put a twist on the classic slime science project by making magnetic slime. This is slime that reacts to a strong magnetic field, like a ferrofluid, but it's easier to control. It's easy to make, too. Here is what you do: Magnetic Slime Materials white school glue (e.g., Elmer's glue) liquid starch iron oxide powder rare earth magnets Ordinary magnets are not strong enough to have much of an effect on magnetic slime.
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China's Red Guards

During the Cultural Revolution in China, Mao Zedong mobilized groups of devoted young people who called themselves "Red Guards" to carry out his new program. Mao sought to enforce communist dogma and to rid the nation of the so-called "Four Olds;" old customs, old culture, old habits, and old ideas. This Cultural Revolution was an obvious bid for a return to relevancy by the founder of the People's Republic of China, who had been sidelined after some of his more disastrous policies such as the Great Leap Forward killed tens of millions of Chinese.
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War of 1812: Siege of Fort Erie

The Siege of Fort Erie was conducted from August 4 to September 21, 1814, during the War of 1812. Armies & Commanders British Lieutenant General Gordon Drummond approx. 3,000 men United States Major General Jacob Brown Brigadier General Edmund Gaines approx. 2,500 men Background With the beginning of the War of 1812, the US Army commenced operations along the Niagara frontier with Canada.
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An Overview of Labeling Theory

Labeling theory states that people come to identify and behave in ways that reflect how others label them. This theory is most commonly associated with the sociology of crime since labeling someone unlawfully deviant can lead to poor conduct. Describing someone as a criminal, for example, can cause others to treat the person more negatively, and, in turn, the individual acts out.
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Tips and Tricks for Getting Your Students' Attention

One of the biggest challenges teachers face is getting and maintaining the attention of their students. Effective teaching requires this skill but it takes time and practice to learn. Whether you are just starting out or have been teaching for decades, attention-getting techniques can be helpful additions to your classroom.
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An Introduction to Psychological Warfare

Psychological warfare is the planned tactical use of propaganda, threats, and other non-combat techniques during wars, threats of war, or periods of geopolitical unrest to mislead, intimidate, demoralize, or otherwise influence the thinking or behavior of an enemy. While all nations employ it, the U.
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15 Words That Will Make You Sound Smarter

Do you remember how exciting it was when you learned to say supercalifragilisticexpialidocious ? Didn't you feel smart? Just because you're older, doesn't mean acronyms and emojis should be your main form of communication. After all, if you want to be successful in life, you have to make an unforgettable first impression.
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How to Use the French Past Subjunctive

The past subjunctive is used for the same reasons as the present subjunctive: to express emotion, doubts, and uncertainty. There is a large variety of situations in which subjunctive is used, just as there are many different expressions that go along with them. Note that the only difference between the present subjunctive and the past subjunctive is tense; usage is the same for both.
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Anderson Name Meaning & Origin

Patronymic surname meaning "son of Andrew." Andrew (man, manly) was the first of Jesus' disciples and was a revered name in medieval times due to its church connections. St. Andrew is the patron saint of both Scotland and Russia. Swedish patronymic "son" names traditionally end in -son , not -sen . In Denmark, the regular patronymic is -sen .
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How to Design a Galley (Corridor) Kitchen

The galley kitchen, sometimes referred to as a "corridor" kitchen, is a very common layout in apartments and in older, smaller homes where a more expansive L-shaped or open-concept kitchen is not practical. This is regarded as an efficient design that is most suitable for homes with single users or possibly couples.
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How to Use the French Interrogative Pronouns Qui and Que

French has three interrogative pronouns: qui, que , and lequel , which are used to ask questions. They all have differences in meaning and usage. Note that lequel is a more complicated case and, as such, is addressed separately. Also, while qui and que are also relative pronouns, we are only discussing them here in their function as interrogative pronouns.
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Tourism Development in China

Tourism is a burgeoning industry in China. According to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), 57.6 million foreign visitors entered the country in 2011, generating over $40 billion dollars in revenue. China is now the third most visited country in the world, behind only France and the United States.
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Political Career of Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II graduated high school with honors in 1979 and was president of the Harvard Law Review long before he ever decided to enter politics. When he decided he wanted to run for the Illinois Senate in 1996, he ensured his candidacy by successfully challenging the nomination petitions of his four competitors.
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