New

Portugal and the Spanish Civil War

Portugal and the Spanish Civil War


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

On the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War the Portuguese government of Antonio Salazar immediately supported the Nationalists in the struggle against the Popular Front government in Spain. Salazar feared that if the Republicans won the war his own authoritarian government would be under threat.

Salazar, concerned about the effect the events in Spain would have on his country, established a new militia that could serve as an auxiliary police. This new police force arrested dissidents and removed politically unreliable people from educational and governmental institutions.

Leaders of the Nationalist Army were allowed to negotiate with representatives from Nazi Germany in Portugal. After the signing of the Non-Intervention Agreement in September 1936, Salazar agreed that Germany could disguise the aid that it was giving by sending men, planes, tanks, and munitions via Lisbon. Salazar's police also arrested supporters of the Popular Front government living in Portugal. He also sealed off the Portuguese frontier to Republicans.

Although he came under considerable pressure from Britain and France, Salazar refused to allow international observers being stationed on the Portugal-Spain border. Officially he claimed that it would be a violation of Portugal sovereignty while in reality he did not want the world to know about the large amounts of military aid that was crossing into Spain.

Yesterday Senor Alvarez del Vayo, the Spanish Foreign Minister, sent to the Secretary General of the League documents containing the latest information in regard to alleged violations of the non-intervention agreement by Germany, Italy, and Portugal. It is understood that the documents contained detailed information of a grave nature.

I understand that so many airplanes have been supplied to the rebels by Germany and Italy that they now have about three times as many as the Spanish Government whereas at the beginning of the civil war the Spanish Government had about four times as many as the rebels. The rebels themselves are unable to manufacture airplanes, so that all these additional airplanes must have been supplied by other nations. German and Italian airmen who have been taken prisoner have confessed that they were acting under orders of their Governments.

The documents are understood to contain evidence showing that during the military operations of the rebels in Estremadura the air bases, the supplies, and the movements of the rebel troops were organized on Portuguese territory with the help of the Portuguese military forces. Airplanes and other arms that have fallen into the hands of the Government are of a type that has never existed in the Spanish army and reveal their foreign origin.

The Spanish Delegation asked that the documents should be published and should be distributed to the members of the League. They have not yet been distributed, and it is impossible to obtain from the Secretariat any information as to whether they will be published.


Spanish civil war: The Second Republic

The second republic, proclaimed after the fall of the monarchy in 1931, was at first dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, among them Niceto Alcalá Zamora, Francisco Largo Caballero, and Manuel Azaña. They began a broad-ranging attack on the traditional, privileged structure of Spanish society: Some large estates were redistributed church and state were separated and an antiwar, antimilitarist policy was proclaimed. With their interests and their ideals threatened, the landed aristocracy, the church, and a large military clique, as well as monarchists and Carlists, rallied against the government, as did the new fascist party, the Falange.

The government's idealistic reforms failed to satisfy the left-wing radicals and did little to ameliorate the lot of the lower classes, who increasingly engaged in protest movements against it. The forces of the right gained a majority in the 1933 elections, and a series of weak coalition governments followed. Most of these were under the leadership of the moderate republican Alejandro Lerroux, but he was more or less dependent on the right wing and its leader José María Gil Robles. As a result many of the republican reforms were ignored or set aside. Left-wing strikes and risings buffeted the government, especially during the revolution of Oct., 1934, while the political right, equally dissatisfied, increasingly resorted to plots and violence.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Spanish and Portuguese History


Spanish civil war: Outbreak of War

When the electoral victory (1936) of the Popular Front (composed of liberals, Socialists, and Communists) augured a renewal of leftist reforms, revolutionary sentiment on the right consolidated. In July, 1936, Gen. Francisco Franco led an army revolt in Morocco. Rightist groups rebelled in Spain, and the army officers led most of their forces into the revolutionary (Nationalist or Insurgent) camp. In N Spain the revolutionists, under Gen. Emilio Mola, quickly overran most of Old Castile, Navarre, and W Aragon. They also captured some key cities in the south.

Catalonia—where socialism and anarchism were strong, and which had been granted autonomy—remained republican (Loyalist). The Basques too sided with the republicans to protect their local liberties. This traditional Spanish separatism asserted itself particularly in republican territory and hindered effective military organization. By Nov., 1936, the Nationalists had Madrid under siege, but while the new republican government of Francisco Largo Caballero (to which the anarchists had been admitted) struggled to organize an effective army, the first incoming International Brigade helped the Loyalists hold the city.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Spanish and Portuguese History


The Battle of Madrid

On October 1936, the nationalist forces under the command of José Enrique Varela arrived at Madrid's outskirts and in November, the battle of Madrid began. Soon they took over Alcorcón, Leganés, Getafe and Cuatro Vientos. The fall of the capital into rebel troops seemed imminent.
After witnessing the nationalist forces' military superiority, left wing parties and labor unions encouraged the people to rise in defense of their city. They shouted"¡No Pasarán!" ("they won't get through"). The morale of the Madrileños increased at the arrival of external reinforcements. The International Brigades and bodies of voluntaries organized by the communist party, as well as Russian tanks and planes came to help to defend the capital, and for now the Battle of Madrid's outcome was still uncertain.

The city was bombed by German Junker planes and fierce combat took place in Casa de Campo, Ciudad Universitaria and Puente de los Franceses. The republican troops managed to resist and finally Francisco Franco ordered a frontal assault of the city, however he did not succeed.


The Nationalists advance, the Republicans fracture and are beaten back while democracies around the world fail to come to the aid of their Republican counterparts in Spain for fear of angering Italy and Germany. Large losses by the Republicans lead to major changes, not all for the better. Pictures of people and places mentioned in &hellip

This week we return our focus to Spain and the immediate aftermath of the Nationalist uprising. In addition to extreme violence, we will see radical social and economic changes take place as a result. Spain became a cauldron of political experimentation, for better or for worse. Pictures of people mentioned in the podcast + Battle &hellip


Assorted References

The earliest human remains found in Portugal are Neanderthal-type bones from Furninhas. A distinct culture first emerged in the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) middens of the lower Tagus valley, dated about 5500 bce . Neolithic (New Stone Age)

Neighbouring Portugal acquired independence in 1668 after revolt and war protracted by the stubborn determination of Philip IV to maintain his patrimony. This small country had suffered since 1580 from its Spanish connection. Resentment at the loss of part of Brazil and most of…

…the Távoras, (1758–59), event in Portuguese history that enabled the Marquis de Pombal, chief minister to King Joseph I, to crush the higher nobility and the Jesuits, who had opposed him.

In Portugal, Pombal, the rebuilder of post-earthquake Lisbon, was motivated chiefly by the need to restore vitality to a country with a pioneering maritime past. Leopold of Tuscany was able to draw on a rich humanist tradition and civic pride. Everywhere the preferences of the ruler…

Meanwhile, in neighbouring Portugal, António de Oliveira Salazar, a professor of economics, had been made finance minister after a military coup d’état in 1926 and, although he had resigned soon afterward, he had been recalled in 1928. After reorganizing the Portuguese budget, in 1932 he was offered the…

…into three phases: Spanish and Portuguese Dutch and English and French. The Spanish and Portuguese period began with the voyages in the early 1520s of Ferdinand Magellan and, after his death, his crew members. Later discoveries included the Solomon Islands, the Marquesas, and possibly New Guinea, all by the Spaniard…

Portuguese Blue Shirts, who called themselves “national syndicalists,” regarded systematic violence against leftists to be “revolutionary.” During the Spanish Civil War, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and German fascists joined forces to defeat the Popular Front, a coalition of liberals, socialists, communists, and anarchists who had been…

The Salazar regime in Portugal, using the Italian legislation as its model, outlawed the Trade Union Federation and all leftist unions, made corporatist unions compulsory for workers, and declared strikes illegal—all of which contributed to a decline in real wages. Croatian, Russian, Argentine, Brazilian, and Chilean fascism also proposed…

…for the eventual bequest of Portugal to the Habsburgs after the eventual death of King Sebastian (who was then still a child) with the help of his sister Catherine, grandmother of Sebastian and regent of Portugal. He aided his son in procuring funds in Spain for the continuation of the…

…concessions particularly with France and Portugal in the East Indian archipelago the contest was with the Dutch and the Portuguese and in China it was with virtually all maritime powers in northern and western Europe. The result was that the East India merchantmen were very large ships, full-rigged and multimasted,…

…from Spain politically and from Portugal in trade, gained a major part of the English carrying trade. The Navigation Act initiated a rapid change in that pattern. After the restoration of the Stuart monarchy, English shipping nearly doubled in tonnage between 1666 and 1688. By the beginning of the 18th…

of France, Spain, and Portugal.

By the 1480s, Portuguese ships were already transporting Africans for use as slaves on the sugar plantations in the Cape Verde and Madeira islands in the eastern Atlantic. Spanish conquistadors took African slaves to the Caribbean after 1502, but Portuguese merchants continued to dominate the transatlantic slave trade…

…the transatlantic slave trade, the Portuguese generally purchased Africans who had been taken as slaves during tribal wars. As the demand for slaves grew, the Portuguese began to enter the interior of Africa to forcibly take captives as other Europeans became involved in the slave trade, generally they remained on…

…relationship with the increasingly powerful Portuguese, whereby he retained access to trade goods, especially to horses from the Middle East, while the Portuguese were allowed to trade in his dominions. The accounts from this period by the Portuguese travelers Domingos Pais and Duarte Barbosa depict a thriving city and kingdom…

Colonial expansion

Following Christopher Columbus’ first voyage, the rulers of Portugal and Spain, by the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), partitioned the non-Christian world between them by an imaginary line in the Atlantic, 370 leagues (about 1,300 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. Portugal…

Portugal, in the 20th century the poorest and least developed of the western European powers, was the first nation (with Spain) to establish itself as a colonial power and the last to give up its colonial possessions. In Portuguese Africa during the authoritarian regime of…

Angola

…proclamation of the Republic of Portugal in Lisbon in late 1910, followed in 1926 by the creation of the authoritarian New State (Estado Novo), marked the advent of modern Portuguese colonialism. The authorities stamped out slavery and undertook the systematic conquest of Angola. By 1920 all but the remote southeast…

…Afonso extended Kongo’s relations with Portugal, reaching an agreement (the Regimento, 1512) with Manuel I of Portugal by which the Kongo accepted Portuguese institutions, granted extraterritorial rights to Portuguese subjects, and supplied slaves to Portuguese traders. Afonso also rebuilt the kingdom’s capital using stone, expanded the kingdom to the south…

…an advanced frontier post for Portuguese colonial trade with the interior. In 1948 the first colonato (planned agricultural community) for black Africans in Angola was established near the town. Cattle were raised, and various crops (including corn [maize] and cotton) were grown with the assistance of agronomists. Pop. (latest est.)…

About 1617 the Portuguese colony of Angola employed the Imbangala as mercenaries, achieving great success in wars against the Ndongo kingdom and other neighbouring peoples. Subsequently many bands of Imbangala either were destroyed, joined with Ndongo or the Portuguese, or formed independent polities of their own in the…

The Portuguese had an interest in the vicinity of Kakongo and occupied the coast in 1883 to forestall French action in the area. They also made agreements with local authorities, such as António Thiaba da Costa, the holder of a Kakongo title who was simultaneously made…

The Portuguese established a controlled market, or feira, in Kasanje at this time, which served as a channel for the slave trade from states further in the interior, such as the Lunda empire. In the mid-19th century, Kasanje was able to repulse a Portuguese military expedition.…

…Kongo territory) and create the Portuguese colony that became Angola. Relations with Angola soon soured and then worsened when Angola’s governor briefly invaded southern Kongo in 1622. Later, Garcia II Nkanga a Lukeni (reigned 1641–61) sided with the Dutch against Portugal when the former country seized portions of Angola from…

…in the long war with Portugal and her Ndongo rival, Ngola a Hari. A treaty in 1656 ended the war and established Matamba’s boundary with the Portuguese colony of Angola. Njinga left no children, and, following a civil war in 1666, Matamba was ruled by the descendants of her general,…

…gave its name to the Portuguese colony of Angola. Portugal had intermittent relations with Ndongo from 1520, but it was only in 1575 that a Portuguese base was established—by Paulo Dias de Novais at Luanda Island. At first Dias de Novais cooperated with Ndongo, his forces serving as mercenaries in…

…of hundreds of years of Portuguese colonization, and the general overall educational philosophy for both countries was the same until independence. For Portugal, education was an important part of its civilizing mission. In 1921, Decree 77 forbade the use of African languages in the schools. The government believed that since…

…clove trade first attracted the Portuguese, who named the island and founded a settlement in 1521. The Dutch captured the Portuguese fort in 1605, took over the spice trade, and in 1623 destroyed a British settlement in the Amboina Massacre. The British took it in 1796, and after it had…

…of the 16th century witnessed Portuguese penetration of the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Though they failed to capture Aden, the Portuguese blockaded the Indian trade routes to Europe via the Persian Gulf and Red Sea, eventually causing severe, lasting damage to the economy of Muslim Middle Eastern countries.

The quest for wealth and knowledge might logically have pulled the Portuguese to Australian shores the assumption has some evidential support, including a reference indicating that Melville Island, off the northern coast, supplied slaves. Certainly the Portuguese debated the issue of a terra…

The conference, proposed by Portugal in pursuance of its special claim to control of the Congo estuary, was necessitated by the jealousy and suspicion with which the great European powers viewed one another’s attempts at colonial expansion in Africa. The general act of the Conference of Berlin declared the…

Portuguese explorers of the region first encountered Tupians and principally dealt with them for many years. Indeed, Tupians may have been the most important Indian influence in Brazil’s early colonial period and in the culture that subsequently developed however, European diseases decimated the indigenous population,…

…Tordesillas (1494) between Spain and Portugal, dividing the non-European world between them, gave the Portuguese a legal claim to a large part of the area to be called Brazil. The Portuguese came upon the Brazilian coast in 1500 on the way to India and would doubtless have acted much as…

Conspiracies against Portuguese rule during 1788–98 showed that some groups in Brazil had already been contemplating the idea of independence in the late 18th century. Moreover, the Pombaline reforms of the second half of the 18th century, Portugal’s attempt to overhaul the administration of its overseas possessions,…

It was Portuguese navigators such as Diogo Gomes and Diogo Afonso, Venetian explorer Alvise Ca’ da Mosto, and Genoese navigators such as António and Bartólomeu da Noli, however, who began to report on the islands in the mid-15th century, shortly before a plan of active colonization and…

…the 1470s a colony of Portuguese was settled on the offshore island of São Tomé. The Portuguese had been experimenting with colonial plantations for more than a century and already had settlements on Cape Verde and the Canary and Madeira islands. On São Tomé they established fields of sugarcane and…

In 1483 the Portuguese landed in Kongo. Initially, relations between the Kongolese and Portuguese rulers were good. Characterized by the exchange of representatives and the sojourn of Kongolese students in Portugal, this period was a harbinger of late 20th-century technical assistance. Unfortunately, the need of Portuguese planters on…

…came under the rule of Portugal in the late 18th century. The Marathas ceded Nagar Haveli to the Portuguese in 1783 as compensation for a Portuguese vessel that their navy had destroyed. Two years later Portugal acquired Dadra, which became a kind of fief. After India achieved independence in 1947,…

The Portuguese acquired Daman and Diu as part of their grand design to control the trade of the Indian Ocean. In 1535, under a treaty with Sultan Bahādur Shah of Gujarat, the Portuguese built a fort at Diu, an important port on the flourishing commercial and…

This was the situation on the East African coast when Portuguese ships under Vasco da Gama arrived in 1498. The manifestly superior military and naval technology of the Portuguese and the greater unity of their command enabled them, in the years that lay…

In 1541 the Portuguese, whose interests in the Red Sea were imperiled by Muslim power, sent 400 musketeers to train the Ethiopian army in European tactics. Emperor Galawdewos (reigned 1540–59) opted for a hit-and-run strategy and on February 21, 1543, caught Aḥmad in the open near Lake Tana…

…its ruler when seafarers from Portugal first reached India. The city was attacked in March 1510 by the Portuguese under Afonso de Albuquerque. The city surrendered without a struggle, and Albuquerque entered it in triumph.

…N) was rounded by the Portuguese seaman Gil Eannes (Gilianes) in 1434, and some years later the first cargoes of slaves and gold were brought back to Lisbon. A papal bull gave Portugal exclusive rights over the western coast of Africa, and in 1469 Fernão Gomes was granted a trade…

During the colonial period Portugal was by far Guinea-Bissau’s most important trading partner. Although Portugal retained a significant role after independence, Guinea-Bissau also maintains important trade relationships with such countries as Senegal and India.

…the town was part of Portuguese India. The town was sacked and burned by the Portuguese in 1531. It was subsequently rebuilt, and in 1559 it was again taken by the Portuguese, who made it a permanent settlement. Damão became a flourishing port, but its importance waned with the decline…

The Portuguese were the first agents of this renewed contact, because they were among the few Europeans at that time to possess both the navigational know-how and the necessary motivation for the long sea voyage. During the 15th century the direct routes for…

…to the appearance of the Portuguese. The Portuguese were riding the momentum generated by their own seaborne expansion as well as by the fulfillment of the Reconquista and the establishment of an aggressively intolerant Christian regime in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. In Morocco it was neither the fervour…

…against the Moors carried the Portuguese to probe the West African coastline and the Spanish to attempt the expulsion of Islam from the western Mediterranean. In the last years of the 15th century, Portuguese navigators established the sea route to India and within a decade had secured control of the…

…colonization by the Spaniards and Portuguese from the late 15th through the 18th century as well as movements of independence from Spain and Portugal in the early 19th century. Even since independence, many of the various nations have experienced similar trends, and they have some awareness of a common heritage.…

The first Portuguese ship anchored in the Pearl River estuary in 1513, and further Portuguese visits followed regularly. Trade with China commenced in 1553. Four years later Portuguese paying tribute to China settled in Macau, which became the official and principal entrepôt for all international trade with…

The Portuguese, who for a century had been seeking a sea route to eastern Asia, finally arrived at Malacca in 1509, inaugurating a new era of European activity in Southeast Asia. Although much of Southeast Asia, including northern Borneo, experienced little Western impact before the 19th…

The Portuguese forcibly established themselves in Male from 1558 until their expulsion in 1573. In the 17th century the islands were a sultanate under the protection of the Dutch rulers of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and, after the British took possession of Ceylon in 1796, the islands…

The Portuguese established themselves on the islands in 1512, beginning many decades of conflict that caused great losses of life. The first major confrontation was between the Portuguese and the reigning sultans of Ternate and Tidore later, the Spanish, English, and Dutch wrestled for control of…

The voyage of Vasco da Gama around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean in 1498 marked the European entry into trade, politics, and society in the Indian Ocean world. The Portuguese gained control of the Island of Mozambique and the port city…

The 1926 coup in Portugal created a Portuguese regime that came to be known as the “New State” (Estado Novo). Although most of the former abuses in Mozambique continued and in some cases were intensified, the New State consolidated the profit into fewer hands and promoted conditions that would…

Portugal claimed a swath of territory from present-day Mozambique to Angola. Although the Germans, whose territory bordered Mozambique to the north, accepted the Portuguese claims—establishing Mozambique’s northern boundary—British claims to the region contradicted those of Portugal, leading to prolonged negotiations. However, the Portuguese crown was…

Portugal’s initial response to the outbreak of revolt in Angola and Mozambique was all-out war, and by the mid 1960s there were some 70,000 Portuguese troops in each territory. Large numbers of Black troops were recruited, and villagers supporting the guerrillas were subjected to savage…

The Portuguese occupied a number of positions on the Moroccan coast between 1471 and 1505, which included Tangier in the north and Agadir in the south. The Spaniards conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the peninsula, in 1492, and between 1505 and 1510 they began…

En route to India, the Portuguese sacked Muscat in 1507 and soon controlled the entire coast. More than a century later the Yaʿrubid dynasty drove the Portuguese from the Omani coast, recapturing Muscat in 1650 and then occupying Portuguese settlements in the Persian Gulf and East African coastal regions. Their…

…it was founded by the Portuguese as a trading station in 1544 and in the 18th and 19th centuries had a slave market. Quelimane became a Portuguese colonial town in 1761 and two years later was established as a concelho (township). Sisal plantations were organized by German planters in the…

In 1886 Germany and Portugal had agreed on the Rovuma as the boundary between then German East Africa (now Tanzania) and Portuguese Mozambique, but the Germans later claimed (1892) that Portugal had no rights north of Cabo Delgado, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of the Rovuma’s mouth. In…

In the late 16th century, Portugal had a fort, called Julfa, or Julfar, on or near the site the Persians expelled the Portuguese in 1622. The Dutch had begun their commercial penetration of the region, but they withdrew in the mid-18th century. By the 19th century, Britain had become the…

Several years after the Portuguese first explored Brazil, French traders in search of pau-brasil (a type of brazilwood) reached the rich area extending from the Cape Frio coast to the beaches and islands of Guanabara Bay—the economic and, above all, strategic importance of which was already well-known. On one…

São Tomé and Príncipe were uninhabited when they were discovered, about 1470, by Portuguese navigators. In the late 15th century the Portuguese sent out settlers (including many convicts and Jewish children who had been separated from their parents and expelled from Portugal)…

…Indian Ocean competing with the Portuguese route around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1510 he took Goa, in western India, which became the capital and stronghold of the Portuguese East, and in 1511 he captured Malacca at the farther end of the ocean. Later he subdued Hormuz (now in…

…end of the 16th century, Portugal in the East held only the ports of Goa and Diu, in India, and Macau, in China. The English dominated the trade of India, and the Dutch that of the East Indies. It was the Dutch, trading on the fringes of the known world,…

Portugal, initiated the first great enterprise of the Age of Discovery—the search for a sea route east by south to Cathay. His motives were mixed. He was curious about the world he was interested in new navigational aids and better ship design and was eager…

…domination, only the Spanish and Portuguese were admitted to their South American colonies. The rigid exclusion of all other foreigners had but few exceptions, though a small number of non-Iberian Europeans settled as a result of illegal or tolerated immigration. Most of the Spaniards came from Castile and the southern…

…16th century, brought by the Portuguese, Spanish, and, somewhat later, the French. It spread easily in the northern Philippines, where Spanish missionaries did not have to compete with an organized religious tradition and could count on the interested support of a government bent on colonization. Unlike the religions with which…

…by the Americans), with the Portuguese still clinging to the island of Timor. What were often called “pacification campaigns” were actually colonial wars—notably in Burma (Myanmar), Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia—and continued well into the 20th century. More peaceful Western encroachments on local sovereignty also occurred until the 1920s. Full-blown,…

For much of the 19th century, Portuguese colonists in Angola and Mozambique were fewer in number and weaker in authority than those in the interior of South Africa. At the beginning of the century,…

Portuguese influence in west-central Africa radiated over a far wider area and was much more dramatic and destructive than on the east coast. Initially the Portuguese crown and Jesuit missionaries forged peaceful links with the kingdom of the Kongo, converting its…

The first Portuguese ships rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, their occupants intent on gaining a share of the lucrative Arab trade with the East. Over the following century, numerous vessels made their way around the South African coast, but the only direct African contacts…

…involved the Swazi, Boers, and Portuguese. After the Swazi gained control of land almost to Maputo in 1864, the Gaza (under the victorious Mzila) migrated northward into the Buzi River area of present-day eastern Zimbabwe.

…agreed to pay tribute to Portugal, thus becoming the first Sinhalese king to accept the suzerainty of a European king. The kingdom of Kotte continued to exist nominally until 1597, when—with the death of its last ruler, Don Juan Dharmapāla—sovereignty officially passed to the king of Portugal, by a written…

By about 1500 trade in the Indian Ocean was dominated by Arab, Indian, Malay, and Chinese merchants, who together used various seafaring craft to transport a spectrum of cargo, from spices to elephants. In the…

…conquer the city by the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator in 1437—remained so until captured by the Portuguese in 1471.

The Portuguese, beginning with a voyage to Porto Santo off the coast of West Africa in 1418, were the first Europeans to promote overseas exploration and colonization. By 1487 the Portuguese had traveled all the way to the southern tip of Africa, establishing trading stations at…

In 1516 Portuguese adventurers arriving by sea inaugurated the era of Western penetration of Vietnam. They were followed in 1527 by Dominican missionaries, and eight years later a Portuguese port and trading centre were established at Faifo (modern Hoi An), south of present-day Da Nang. More Portuguese…

The pioneers were the Portuguese, southwestern Europeans with the necessary knowledge, experience, and national purpose to embark on the enterprise of developing oceanic trade routes with Africa and Asia. Their main goals were in Asia, but to reach Asia it was necessary to circumnavigate Africa, in the process of…

The Portuguese had not imported guns into western Africa on any scale and as a matter of policy had sold them only to their allies. In the highly competitive trading situation that followed the Dutch breaking of the Portuguese monopoly, all the European trading nations vied…

…the excessively conservative regimes of Portugal and Spain sought to maintain the colonial principle in western Africa. Encouraged and aided by independent neighbours, Guinean nationalists took up arms in 1962 and after 10 years of fighting expelled the Portuguese from three-quarters of Portuguese Guinea. In 1974 the strain of this…

With the advent of the Portuguese in about 1440, the Wolof were drawn first into a profitable trading partnership and then into a political alliance—though they remained sufficiently independent to repel Portugal’s more blatant attempts at infiltration.

…Western world began with the Portuguese in Mozambique. Early in the 17th century the Portuguese ousted Muslims from the gold trade of central Africa, and early in the 18th century they founded trading posts at Zumbo and Feira, at the confluence of the Zambezi and Luangwa rivers. By 1762 they…

…the advent of independence in Portuguese Africa in 1975 and in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) in 1980. But warfare in Angola and South African interference continued to provide pretexts to curb internal opposition.

Though the first references to Zanzibar occur only after the rise of Islam, there appears to be little doubt that its close connection with southern Arabia and the countries bordering the Persian Gulf began before the Common Era. At the beginning…

The Portuguese, who arrived on the east coast of Africa at the end of the 15th century, dreamed of opening up the interior and establishing a route to connect their eastern settlements with Angola in the west. The first European to enter Zimbabwe was…

Explorers

of King Manuel I of Portugal, from whom he received various privileges in 1497 these included a personal allowance, the title of counselor to his highness, and the habit of the military Order of Christ. Following up on da Gama’s pioneering voyage, three years later the king entrusted him with…

…II), with the supervision of Portugal’s trade with Guinea and the exploration of the western coast of Africa. John sought to close the area to foreign shipping and after his accession in 1481 ordered new voyages of discovery to ascertain the southern limit of the African continent. The navigators were…

…of Alentejo province in southwestern Portugal. Little is known of his early life. In 1492 King John II of Portugal sent him to the port of Setúbal, south of Lisbon, and to the Algarve, Portugal’s southernmost province, to seize French ships in retaliation for French peacetime depredations against Portuguese shipping—a…

…under the flags of both Portugal (1505–13) and Spain (1519–21). From Spain he sailed around South America, discovering the Strait of Magellan, and across the Pacific. Though he was killed in the Philippines, one of his ships continued westward to Spain, accomplishing the first circumnavigation of Earth. The voyage was…

…went into the service of Portugal.

Foreign relations

…Mwene Matapa empire by the Portuguese. His conversion to Christianity enabled the Portuguese to extend their commercial influence into the African interior from their trading base in Mozambique on the East African coast.

The Portuguese had already established themselves in southern India and at Malacca, where they learned of the huge profits that could be made in the regional trade between the China coast and Southeast Asia. Becoming involved in what the Ming court considered smuggling and piracy, the…

…economic blow fell with the Portuguese assault on trade in the Red Sea (c. 1500), which was accompanied by Ottoman expansion into Mamluk territory in Syria. Having failed to adopt field artillery as a weapon in any but siege warfare, the Mamluks were decisively defeated by the Ottomans both in…

…and Egypt’s loss to the Portuguese of control over the Indian trade, along with the sultans’ inability to keep their refractory Mamluk corps under control, gradually sapped the strength of the state. The best efforts of such a vigorous sultan as Qāʾit Bāy (reigned 1468–96) failed to make Egypt strong…

…solve the problem of the Portuguese colony of Goa, the last remaining foreign-controlled entity in India. Although its military occupation by Indian troops in December 1961 raised a furor in many Western countries, in the hindsight of history, Nehru’s action is justifiable. With the withdrawal of the British and the…

These Westerners were part of the vast exploration, trade, and colonization effort that reached South America, Africa, and South and Southeast Asia. From the time of the foreigners’ first arrival in 1543 until their expulsion in the 1630s, there was a modest amount of cultural transmission.…

…history that the Spanish and Portuguese made their appearance in the archipelago. In 1543 several Portuguese were shipwrecked on the island of Tanega, off southern Kyushu. These were the first Europeans to arrive in Japan, and the art of musket construction they passed on at this time immediately spread to…

To counteract the Portuguese fleet, supplied by the Safavids from their Persian Gulf ports, he built major naval bases at Suez (1517) and, as soon as he took Iraq, at Basra (1538), establishing garrisons and fleets that not only resisted the Portuguese naval attacks but also attacked them…

However, the rulers of Portugal, Navarre (Navarra), and Aragon-Catalonia (Spanish: Cataluña Catalan: Catalunya), whose frontiers began to be delineated in the 11th and 12th centuries, repudiated and often undermined the aspirations of their larger neighbour. The Reconquista was nearly completed by the middle of the 13th century, by which…

…revolt of Catalonia gave the Portuguese their opportunity. The lower classes and the clergy had always hated the Castilians, and the Portuguese aristocracy and the commercial classes—previously content with the patronage and the economic opportunities that the union with Spain had provided—had become dissatisfied during the preceding 20 years. They…

…Vasco da Gama returned to Lisbon from India with a small cargo of spices, threatening an end to the virtual monopolization by the Venetians of Eastern trade. Second, the Ottoman Turks, having taken Constantinople in 1453, continued their advance in Greece, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. In the course of…

Wars and treaties

…the Ottoman Empire and of Portugal were to be respected, with the exception that France would keep Portuguese Guinea.

…allegiance to the king of Portugal and, in return, were assured that their laws and customs would be left inviolate.

…to march through Spain to Portugal (October–November 1807). The Portuguese royal family fled, sailing to Brazil, and Junot arrived in Lisbon on November 30. The French army that conquered Portugal, however, also occupied parts of northern Spain and Napoleon, whose intentions were now becoming clear, claimed all of Portugal and…

…the beginning, England’s old ally Portugal showed itself reluctant to comply, for the blockade would mean its commercial ruin. Napoleon decided to break down Portuguese opposition by force. Charles IV of Spain let the French troops cross his kingdom, and they occupied Lisbon but the prolonged presence of Napoleon’s soldiers…

…the thrones of Spain and Portugal against the conservative claimants to those thrones. The alliance successfully supported Maria Cristiana, who was acting as regent for Isabella II in Spain and had allied herself with the liberals against the pretender Don Carlos in the First Carlist War (1833–39). In Portugal the…

…Treaty, (1810), agreement between the Portuguese government, then in exile in its Brazilian colony, and Great Britain, represented by its ambassador, Lord Strangford. The treaty provided for the importation of British manufactures into Brazil and the exportation of Brazilian agricultural produce to Great Britain also, British naval vessels were allowed…

…Spain on the other, with Portugal expressly understood to be included. It was signed in Paris on Feb. 10, 1763.

…support of two reluctant allies, Portugal and Savoy, which feared to oppose the Bourbons, whose forces controlled Spain and the Spanish possessions in northern Italy. Two allies who were to be of more value to France were the Wittelsbach brothers, Maximilian II Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, and Joseph Clement


References

1 Andrews , C. , Portuguese East Africa, 1948 ( London , 1949 ), I .Google Scholar

2 Fynes-Clinton , D. , Portuguese West Africa, Economic and Commercial Conditions ( London , 1949 ), I .Google Scholar

3 Spence , C. , Descrição económica de Moçambique ( Lourenço Marques , 1951 ), 58 .Google Scholar

4 There exists an enormous literature on this subject. For some of the recent work, see Smyth , D. , ‘Diplomacy and the strategy of survival: British policy and Spanish non-belligerency, 1940–1941’ (Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge , 1978 forthcoming as a book in 1985 )Google Scholar Suñer , R. Serrano , Entre el silencio y la propaganda, la historia como fue, memorias ( Barcelona , 1977 )Google Scholar Pike , D. , ‘ Franco and the Axis stigma ’, Journal of Contemporary History , XVII ( 1982 ), 369 – 407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar Halstead , C. , ‘ Aborted imperialism, Spain's occupation of Tangier, 1940–1945 ’, Iberian Studies , VII , 2 ( 1978 ), 53 – 71 .Google Scholar For the officious statement of Spanish claims and a set of maps, see Areilza , J. M. De and Castiella , F. , Reivindicaciones de España ( second edition , Madrid , 1941 ).Google Scholar

5 Smyth , , ‘Diplomacy’Google Scholar Medlicott , W. , The Economic Blockade (2 vols., London , 1952 , 1959 )Google Scholar Andrews , , Portuguese East Africa, 13 .Google Scholar

6 Spence , , Descrição, 77 Google Scholar Great Britain: Admiralty (Naval Intelligence Division), Spain and Portugal ( London , 1941 – 1945 ), IV , 99 , 104 Google Scholar Nosti , J. , Agricultura de Guinea, promesa para España ( Madrid , 1948 ), 43 Google Scholar Liniger-Goumaz , M. , La Guinée Equatoriale, un pays méconnu ( Paris , 1979 ), 217 , 378 – 379 .Google Scholar

7 Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, Relatórios.

8 Ruhl , K. , ‘ L'alliance à distance: les relations économiques germano-espagnoles de 1936 à 1945 ’, Revue d'Histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale , no. 118 ( 1980 ), 69 – 102 Google Scholar idem, Spanien im zweiten Weltkrieg (Hamburg, 1975), passim Fleming , S. , ‘ Spanish Morocco and the Alzamiento Nacional, 1936–1939 ’, Revue d'Histoire Maghrébine , IX , 27 – 28 ( 1982 ), 231 – 232 .Google Scholar

9 For Mozambique, see Vail , L. and White , L. , Capitalism and Colonialism in Mozambique, A Study of the Quelimane District ( London , 1980 ), ch. 6Google Scholar Andrews , , Portuguese East Africa, 13 Google Scholar Moçambique , , Anuário Estatístico.Google Scholar For Angola, see Lefebvre , G. , L'Angola, son histoire, son économie ( Liège , 1947 )Google Scholar Azevedo , J. M. Cerqueira De , Angola, exemplo de trabalho ( Luanda , 1958 ).Google Scholar For Guinea, see Monteiro , R. Vaz , ‘ Relatório do governador ’ ( Bissau , 1944 ) (typescript in S.O.A.S. library ).Google Scholar

10 See Clarence-Smith , G. , The Third Portuguese Empire, 1825–1975 ( Manchester , 1985 ), ch. 6.Google Scholar

11 Monteiro , , Relatório, 188 Google Scholar Liniger-Goumaz , , La Guinée Equatoriale, 230 .Google Scholar

12 Bastos , C. , Indústria e arte têxtil ( Oporto , 1960 )Google Scholar , introduction Portugal: Ministério das Colónias (Junta de Exportação do Algodão Colonial), Relatório de 1942 ( Lisbon , c. 1943 )Google Scholar Vail , and White , , Capitalism, 272 – 279 Google Scholar Azevedo , , Angola, 233 Google Scholar Lefebvre , , L'Angola, 142 Google Scholar Monteiro , M. G. , ‘ A industrialização nas províncias ultramarinas portuguesas de África ’, Boletim da Associação Industrial de Angola , V , 19 ( 1954 ), 54 .Google Scholar

13 Clarence-Smith , , Third Portuguese Empire, ch. 6Google Scholar figures from Portugal: Instituto Nacional de Estatística, Comércio externo.

14 Spain: Ministerio de Hacienda (Dirección General de Aduanas), Estadísticas del comercio exterior de España. Population figures from statistical yearbooks of Spain and Portugal. For the economic situation in Spain, see Clavera , J. et al. , Capitalismo español, de la autarquia a la estabilización, 1939–1959 , I ( Madrid , 1973 ).Google Scholar

15 Thomas , Hugh , The Spanish civil war ( third edition , Harmondsworth , 1977 ), 417 Google Scholar Bidyogo , D. Ndongo , Historia y tragedia de Guinea Equatorial ( Madrid , 1977 ), 51 Google Scholar Fleming , , ‘Spanish Morocco’, 231 .Google Scholar

16 Clavera , , Capitalismo, 46 – 53 , 120 Google Scholar Pike , , ‘Franco’, 375 .Google Scholar For the Canaries, see Información Comercial Española, 156, 10 December 1946 , 157, 25 December 1946 , and 57, 10 November 1942 .Google Scholar For Guinea, see Nosti , , Agricultura, 57 and passim. Detailed figures in Spain , Estadísticas.Google Scholar

17 Spain , , Estadísticas, for figures.Google Scholar For rubber, see Medlicott , , Economic blockade, 11 , 286 – 287 Google Scholar Clavera , , Capitalismo, 83 Google Scholar Nosti , , Agricultura, 19 , 88 .Google Scholar For the Canaries, see Bravo , T. , Geografía general de las islas Canarias , I ( Santa Cruz , 1954 ), 359 – 360 , 379 Google Scholar Mercer , J. , Canary islands: Fuerteventura ( Newton Abbott , 1973 ), 124 .Google Scholar For the Spanish Sahara, see Mercer , J. , Spanish Sahara ( London , 1976 ), 184 – 189 .Google Scholar

18 Hamilton , T. , ‘ Spanish dreams of empire ’, Foreign Affairs , XXII (April, 1944 ), 458 – 468 CrossRefGoogle Scholar Medlicott , , Economic blockade, I , 519 Google Scholar Smyth , , ‘Diplomacy’, 326 .Google Scholar

19 Great Britain: Admiralty (Naval Intelligence Division), Morocco (London, 1941–2), II, 233 Grau , R. Perpiña , De colonización y economía en la Guinea Española ( Barcelona , 1945 ), 270 Google Scholar Halstead , , ‘Aborted imperialism’, 60 Google Scholar Spain , , Estadísticas.Google Scholar

20 Portugal: Ministério do Ultramar, Legislação mandada aplicar ao ultramar português, 1926–1963 (Lisbon, 1965–74), I, 138 Bettencourt , J. Tristão De , Relatório do governador geral de Moçambique, respeitante ao período de 20 de março de 1940 a 31 de dezembro 1942 ( Lisbon , 1945 ), II, 257 – 279 Google Scholar Monteiro , , Relatório, 269 – 273 .Google Scholar Figures for Angola from Dilolwa , C. Rocha , Contribuição à história económica de Angola , ( Luanda , 1978 ), 33 , 42 , 49 .Google Scholar For Mozambique, see Andrews , , Portuguese East Africa, 5 – 6 Google Scholar Kay , S. and Ezard , C. , Report on Economic and Commercial Conditions in Portuguese East Africa ( London , 1938 ), 10 .Google Scholar For De Almeida , Guinea P. Ramos , História do colonialismo português em África ( Lisbon , 1978 – 1979 ), III, 204 Google Scholar Cunningham , J. , ‘ The colonial period in Guin é’, Tarikh , VI , 4 ( 1980 ), 42 .Google Scholar

21 Portugal , , Comércio externo, for figures.Google Scholar For rum, see Cunningham , , ‘The colonial period’, 42 – 43 Google Scholar Carreira , A. , Estudos de economia caboverdiana ( Lisbon , 1982 ), 281 .Google Scholar

22 Portugal , , Comércio externoGoogle Scholar Lefebvre , , L'Angola, 216 , 226 Google Scholar Bettencourt , , Relatório, 69 – 70 , 135 , 261 – 262 Google Scholar Fynes-Clinton , , Portuguese West Africa, 13 Google Scholar Bastos , , Indústria.Google Scholar

23 Great Britain , Spain and Portugal, II , 367 – 372 III , 530 – 539 .Google Scholar

24 Anderson , P. , ‘ Portugal and the end of ultra-colonialism ’, New Left Review , no. 16 ( 1962 ), 122 .Google Scholar

25 Oliveira , J. Da Costa , Aplicação de capitais nas províncias ultramarinas ( Lisbon , 1961 ), 12 – 14 Google Scholar Clarence-Smith , W. G. , ‘Les investissements belges en Angola, 1912–1961’, in Coquery-Vidrovitch , C. (ed.), Entreprises et entrepreneurs en Afrique, XIX e et XX e siècles ( Paris , 1983 ), I , 438 – 439 Google Scholar Spence , , Descrição, 71 , 77 – 78 Google Scholar Galvão , H. and Selvagem , C. , Império ultramarino português ( Lisbon , 1950 – 1953 ), IV , 192 – 193 Google Scholar Leal , F. Pinto Da Cunha , Peregrinações através do poder económico ( Lisbon , 1960 ), 152 Google Scholar Monteiro , , Relatório, 164 , 168 , 196 .Google Scholar

26 Azevedo , , Angola, 326 – 330 , 343 – 345 , 360 – 361 , 434 – 439 , 452 – 453 Google Scholar Great Britain , Spain and Portugal, II , 367 – 372 .Google Scholar

27 Clarence-Smith , , Third Portuguese empire, ch. 6Google Scholar , for details on Portuguese colonies. For Spanish territories, see Bravo , , Geografía, I , 376 – 377 Google Scholar Great Britain , Morocco, II , 202 – 205 .Google Scholar

28 Bettencourt , , Relatório, 64 – 67 , 102 – 113 , 126 Google Scholar Vail , and White , , Capitalism, 279 – 280 Google Scholar Spence , , Descrição, 60 , 71 .Google Scholar

29 Galvão , and Selvagem , , Império, I , 151 , 260 Google Scholar Carreira , A. , Migrações nas ilhas de Cabo Verde ( Lisbon , 1977 ), 235 – 238 .Google Scholar

30 Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana, Suplemento 1945 – 1948 , 824 – 825 Google Scholar Seddon , D. , Moroccan peasants, a century of change in the eastern Rif, 1870–1970 ( Folkestone , 1981 ), 132 .Google Scholar

31 Morna , A. De Freitas , Angola, um ano no governo geral, 1942–1943 ( Lisbon , 1944 ), I , 7 – 8 Google Scholar Lefebvre , , L'Angola, 223 – 224 , 232 –228Google Scholar Bettencourt , , Relatório, II , 165 – 166 Google Scholar Andrews , , Portuguese East Africa, 7 – 8 Google Scholar Spence , , Descrição, 55 – 58 Google Scholar Vail , and White , , Capitalism, 270 – 271 .Google Scholar


The Outbreak of the Conflict

The Spanish Civil War began on July 17, 1936, when generals Emilio Mola and Francisco Franco launched an uprising aimed at overthrowing the country's democratically elected republic. The Nationalist rebels' initial efforts to instigate military revolts throughout Spain only partially succeeded. In rural areas with a strong right-wing political presence, Franco's confederates generally won out. They quickly seized political power and instituted martial law. In other areas, particularly cities with strong leftist political traditions, the revolts met with stiff opposition and were often quelled. Some Spanish officers remained loyal to the Republic and refused to join the uprising.


The Spanish Civil War

"Mr. Thomas has understood [the Spanish Civil War] incredibly well and has written it superbly. A full, vivid and deeply serious treatment of a great subject."--Vincent Sheean, The New York Times Book Review

A masterpiece of the historian's art, Hugh Thomas's The Spanish Civil War remains the best, most engrossing narrative of one of the most emblematic and misunderstood wars of the twentieth century. Revised and updated with significant new material, including new revelations about atrocities perpetrated against civilians by both sides in this epic conflict, this "definitive work on the subject" (Richard Bernstein, The New York Times) has been given a fresh face forty years after its initial publication in 1961. In brilliant, moving detail, Thomas analyzes a devastating conflict in which the hopes, dreams, and dogmas of a century exploded onto the battlefield. Like no other account, The Spanish Civil War dramatically reassembles the events that led a European nation, in a continent on the brink of world war, to divide against itself, bringing into play the machinations of Franco and Hitler, the bloodshed of Guernica, and the deeply inspiring heroics of those who rallied to the side of democracy. Communists, anarchists, monarchists, fascists, socialists, democrats -- the various forces of the Spanish Civil War composed a fabric of the twentieth century itself, and Thomas masterfully weaves the diffuse and fascinating threads of the war together in a manner that has established the book as a genuine classic of modern history.

"Stands without rivals as the most balanced and comprehensive book on the subject."--American Historical Review

Результаты поиска по книге

Отзывы - Написать отзыв

LibraryThing Review

An in-depth study of the lead-in to WWII by a competent British Writer. First published in 1961, but up-dated at least three times, the 1977 edition being the one I read. Franco had been dead three . Читать весь отзыв

LibraryThing Review

684. The Spanish Civil War, by Hugh Thomas (read 3 Dec 1961) I was tremendously impressed by this book and so far as I know it is the best objective account of its subject. Читать весь отзыв


Postage Stamp Chat Board & Stamp Forum

Questions re the Spanish Civil War Local Issue Stamps etc?

Post by admin » 12 Aug 2008 18:04

Appear to be 1930s era by their designs.

Anyone know more about these?
.

Post by admin » 12 Aug 2008 18:11

Yikes .. a quick google check showed them to be Spanish Civil War.

A Spain seller has them all singly at $US15 each!

I found them in an old stockbooks and was pricing them at $20 the lot, but was not sure what they really were. Anyone collect SPAIN!?
.

Post by Slayer » 12 Aug 2008 18:16

Spanish Civil War material inclusing social philately, postal history is very collectable in Western Eurpope (though not so much in UK).

Good quality material, as these appear to be, even more so.

These are some of the numerous cinderellas which were produced by both sides (propganda really) during the conflict.

Post by gavin-h » 16 Aug 2008 06:59

Questions re these Spanish Civil War Local Issue Stamps?

Post by santos760 » 28 Mar 2010 20:38

I know a little about these unique stamps but dont really know how rare they are and if there even valuable.

They are not listed in the Scott.

If anyone has any info about these issues it would be great. I soon hope to sell these at some point.

Re: Spanish Civil War Local Issues - OP Franco. HELP

Post by doug2222usa » 28 Mar 2010 20:53

There are thousands of local and Civil War-related issues
from this period, and no doubt a specialized catalog.

The general Unificado Catalog lists a few regional Franco
stamps.

Ayamonte is a smallish town at the extreme southwestern
corner of Spain, on the (inner) Atlantic coast I have the
topmost stamp, so it can't be rare.

Re: Spanish Civil War Local Issues - OP Franco. HELP

Post by gavin-h » 29 Mar 2010 04:31

I have a few of these, too - and have seen them for sale in markets in various Spanish towns on several occasions for only a few cents (both with and without the "Franco" overprint).

But, even if not valuable, they are still part of a very interesting period in Spanish History and stand as a document of the terrible war of the late 1930s in Spain.

More questions about Spain Local Issues

Post by santos760 » 29 Mar 2010 21:17

Here are some Spain "Franco" issues.

Are any of these considered scarce? Also Scott listing would very helpful as well. Thank you.

Re: More Spain Local Issues.

Post by gavin-h » 29 Mar 2010 22:31

Also, the condition of some of these seems poor - a number of them seem to have brown staining around the edges, which will reduce value further.

And the last two you showed are earlier "regular" Spanish stamps, not Spanish War Local issues.

Sorry to be the bringer of bad news.

Re: Spanish Civil War Local Issues

Post by gavin-h » 03 Apr 2010 02:24

MODERATOR COMMENT:

Santos, I hope you don't mind, but I have merged two of your topics to put the Spanish Civil War Local stamps here in one place.

Hopefully other members of Stampboards will add to this interesting area, and I think this is more likely given a single thread with this title.

If you are not happy with this, please let me know and accept my apologies for interfering.

Santos, thank you for inspiring me to dig out some old stamps I haven't looked at for many years - I will add some scans now.

Re: Spanish Civil War Local Issues

Post by erich » 03 Apr 2010 02:42

Coincidentally, I have a book full of these running now:

just to give you an idea of how many different ones there are.

Re: Spanish Civil War Local Issues

Post by gavin-h » 03 Apr 2010 02:47

As promised, a few more examples from the Spanish War.

Both sides - Nationalist (Fascist, Franquistas) and Republican (Communist, Socialist, Anarcho-syndicalist etc) produced numerous stamps and labels for a variety of purposes, most of which boiled down to either propaganda, fund-raising, or both.

The examples in this scan, some of the simplest designs possible, would have been used in the same way as "obligatory tax" stamps.

All mail from the particular area for a certain period of time would have been obliged to carry one of these labels in addition to the normal postage stamps. The proceeds from the sale of the label would have been channeled to the various causes - social assistance, local assistance, refugee aid, war effort and so on.

As an aid to identification of which side was which, the stamps with the colours of the Spanish Flag (Red/Yellow/Red) and the words "Viva Espana" or "Arriba" (or of course the name or image of Franco) would typically be Nationalist.

Those including words such as "Social" and "Comite" (="Committee") would typically be Republican. Images of stars, clenched fists, hammers and sickles etc are also pretty obviously Republican,and slightly less obvious were issues with initials of the Trade Unions/Militias, such as CGT, PSU, POUM etc.

Both sides used stamps "Pro Guerra" ("For the War"), and issued inscribed with town names.

It's not always immediately obvious, but usually they can be "decoded" without too much difficulty.


Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos